The midfoot joint complex is functionally coordinated with the other lower limb joints for gait forward progression

Is the foot arch coordinated with the other lower limb joints in walking? What if it is coordinated with other joints in the production of walking progression? We computed the contribution of the sagittal angular position of each joint to the production of pelvic anterior-posterior position and displacement, in gait. We found that, despite its small motion, the MFJC had the 3rd largest contribution to pelvic displacement (17.8%) (similarly to ankle contribution – 18.5%). When the arch flattens, the MFJC contributes to gait forward progression, while when the arch raises, the MFJC contributes to backward displacement.

We also investigated if natural variations in MFJC positions, between different steps, are coordinated with changes in the other joints’ positions, as compensations to keep the normal pelvic positions of gait. We found that, in many parts of the stance phase, the joints are coordinated with the MFJC. And that the MFJC was the joint that participated the longest time in this coordination.

These results show a new way of seeing the couplings of joint movements with foot pronation in gait: they seem to be functional compensations to maintain body progression. These findings may help explain the commonly reported relationships of abnormal foot pronation with orthopedic conditions at the lower limb joints.

Personal information:

Name: Thales Rezende Souza, PhD
Institution: Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais. Graduate Program in Rehabilitation Sciences
Position: Assistant Professor

New 3D angular measurements of foot bones in weight-bearing: the technique and preliminary clinical cases


“Foot pathologies or injuries and major morphological alterations are commonly investigated using radiological imaging. Planar X-ray, and CT images are assessed by the radiologist using standard clinical angles and comparing them to a reference healthy dataset. This type of assessment has several limitations: is operator-dependent; is based on 2D projections of the foot on different planes thus is affected by the foot orientation with respect to the x-ray detector; is slow and often does not account for physiological loading on the lower limb. The purpose of this study was to propose a semi-automatic method to assist radiologists and foot scientists in determining the three-dimensional orientation of each foot segment from CT scans of the foot. The proposed method is based on the Principal Component Analysis, a technique that can be used to estimate the orientation of a 3D object by using the coordinates of the points comprising its surface. Once the technique will be fully automatic, objective measurements of the orientation of each foot bone will be possible few minutes following the CT scanning of the foot. This will allow faster and more accurate diagnosis of foot pathologies or injuries.”

Paolo Caravaggi, Ph.D., Researcher, Movement Analysis Laboratory, IRCCS Istituto Ortopedico Rizzoli, Bologna (Italy) 

Join this immersive and innovative experience on Foot & Ankle Biomechanics

You can now register to participate in the i-FAB 2021 which will be held online from April 11 to 14. In the unique experience you will have opportunity to meet colleagues from all around the world through an interactive platform.

The registration fee has been substantially reduced to suit with the new event format and also, it will help us to expand and reinforce our scientific community to take part of this promising meeting.

More information:

i-FAB Announcement Virtual Conference

Dear Colleagues,

Due to the global spread of COVID-19, we’ve made the hard decision to replace the in-person International Foot & Ankle Biomechanics Meeting (iFAB 2021) with a virtual meeting, especially because it is still not clear that the face-to-face format scheduled to be held on April 2021 would be safe to our attendees and above all our paramount concern is the safety of our delegates, speakers, exhibitors, guests, and the general society.

Our Congress is known as an experience where all colleagues come together to hear from great leaders, to network and most of all, get together as friends. This year, while our ability to come together in person may be limited, the need for us to connect as a professional is more important than ever.

This innovation will certainly encourage the participation of more delegates around the word, providing an opportunity to exchange experience with a large networking without borders. The great advantage of this format is giving as many people as possible access to speakers from different countries, which would have university travel restrictions or a busy agenda, preventing their coming in April 2021 to Brazil.

The conference program has been improved by the local and the international committee, in order to allow more oral presentations and more poster sessions to provide opportunities for delegates interaction, through an especially chosen interactive platform with a Live forum where participants can ask and answer questions anytime.

The system for abstract submission is already reopen and the deadline for submission is October 20, 2020. Although we will not meet in person in São Paulo next April, we invite you to be with and make our community come together virtually to achieve our mission.

Here it goes some important information:

✅ i-FAB 2021 will still be held on April 11-14, 2021 as virtual event through a modern, dynamic, and friendly platform.
✅ All the program will be managed to take place virtually.
✅ All oral presentations will be 5 minutes long, with an opportunity for questions and answers live at the end of each session.
✅ Poster sessions: the authors will be able share videos of their presentations and interact with audience.
✅ Exhibitors can interact with attendees through a virtual room designed for them.
✅ All Social events to be host in a virtual environment.
✅ Discussion / chat boards will facilitate additional discussion/interaction.

The registration fee has been substantially reduced to suit with the new event format and also, it will help us to expand and reinforce our scientific community to take part of this promising meeting.

We would like to express our gratitude for all those involved somehow at the congress and we hope that we can count on your flexibility on this transition. Your participation is very important to make i-FAB 2021 greater than ever.

All information regarding to the congress has been updated on the conference website, such as program, registration fees, refund policy, reopening of the abstract submission system, etc. We recommend you to keep track of the information constantly published at our website to be always up to date.

For any clarification or request, please, contact us at or call +55 21 2286-2846.

Warm regards,

Isabel Sacco
Chair of the i-FAB 2021 & Organizing Committee

Peripheral Neuropathy, Claw Toes, Intrinsic Muscle Volume, and Plantar Aponeurosis Thickness in Diabetic Feet

This study examined the relationships between claw toe deformity, peripheral neuropathy, intrinsic muscle volume, and plantar aponeurosis thickness using computed tomography (CT) images of diabetic feet in a cross-sectional analysis.Forty randomly-selected subjects with type 2 diabetes were chosen for each of the following four groups (n = 10 per group): 1) peripheral neuropathy with claw toes, 2) peripheral neuropathy without claw toes, 3) non-neuropathic with claw toes, and 4) non-neuropathic without claw toes. The intrinsic muscles of the foot were segmented from processed CT images. Plantar aponeurosis thickness was measured in the reformatted sagittal plane at 20% of the distance from the most inferior point of the calcaneus to the most inferior point of the second metatarsal. Subjects with concurrent neuropathy and claw toes had thicker mean plantar aponeurosis (p < 0.006) and may have had less mean intrinsic muscle volume (p = 0.083) than the other 3 groups. A negative correlation was observed between plantar aponeurosis thickness and intrinsic muscle volume (R2 = -0.323, p < 0.001). Subjects with concurrent neuropathy and claw toe deformity were associated with the smallest intrinsic foot muscle volumes and the thickest plantar aponeuroses. Intrinsic muscle atrophy and plantar aponeurosis thickening may be related to the development of claw toes in the presence of neuropathy.

William R. Ledoux, PhD | Research Career Scientist


Be prepared to submit your paper to i-FAB 2021!

The submission system will be available again from August 4th, 2020. More details will be announced soon.

That is your chance to submit your scientific paper to the main event on Foot & Ankle Biomechanics in the world!

Like and share it with your friends and co-worker!!


Meet the Keynote speakers

What about if someone tell you that it is possible to bring together the world’s top 5 experts on Foot & Ankle Biomechanics in a single place?

That will be real in i-FAB 2021! You will meet Toni Arndt, Cesar de Cesar Netto, Irene Davis, Michael Rainbow and Madhusudhan Venkadesan and many others specialists on Footwear, Orthotics, Sports, Physiotherapy, Rehabilitation, Clinical Biomechanics, Foot and Ankle Modeling, Orthopedics and Surgery.

Meet the confirmed speakers.

Dr. Armstrong: “Saving the Diabetic Foot During the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Tale of Two Cities”

Certainly, when we talk about Diabetic Foot it’s consensus that Dr. David Armstrong is one the most important name on that subject in the world! And you will have the opportunity to meet him in i-FAB 2021, from April 11 to 14, in São Paulo-Brazil!

In the video below, Dr. Armstrong introduces the study called “Saving the Diabetic Foot During the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Tale of Two Cities”. In this review, the approaches from two centers, Manchester (UK) and Los Angeles (CA), with a major interest in diabetic foot problems are compared and contrasted.

Read the full paper:

Bonus material:

Read the article: “Nature’s Microsurgeons” Star in Innovative Telehealth Procedure

Preliminary program is available

The preliminary program of the i-FAB 2021 is available here.

It will be a three-day scientific program with exciting agenda held by the world’s top researchers.

Get updated on Foot & Ankle Biomechanics subject such as Diabetic Foot, Imaging and Musculoskeletal Modeling, Collapsing Foot, Pediatrics, Footwear and Clinical Biomechanics.

Share it to your colleagues/coworkers and join us!